Aoxomoxoa (1969)

Grateful Dead Aoxomoxoa album cover

Aoxomoxoa is the third studio album by the Grateful Dead, released in 1969. It was a significant departure from the band's previous albums, as it marked a shift towards more experimental and psychedelic soundscapes. The album's title itself is a palindrome, meaning it can be read the same way backwards and forwards, reflecting the band's interest in wordplay and unconventional approaches to music-making.

One of the defining features of Aoxomoxoa is its use of studio techniques to create a layered, intricate sound. The band worked with producer and engineer Alembic Studios to experiment with new recording methods, including overdubbing, phasing, and backwards recording. These techniques are particularly evident on tracks like "St. Stephen" and "Mountains of the Moon," which feature multiple instrumental tracks weaving in and out of each other to create a complex, immersive listening experience.

Another hallmark of Aoxomoxoa is the prominence of the band's improvisational style. While the Grateful Dead had always been known for their live improvisations, Aoxomoxoa marked a departure from the traditional studio recording process in favor of a more organic, improvisational approach. Many of the songs on the album were developed through live performances, with the band members bringing in ideas and experimenting with different arrangements before settling on a final version for the album.

The opening track, "St. Stephen," is a prime example of the album's experimental sound. The song features a driving rhythm and layered instrumentation, with each member of the band contributing to the intricate arrangement. The lyrics, which tell the story of a saint who rises from the dead, are typical of the band's interest in exploring themes of death and rebirth.

Another standout track on the album is "Mountains of the Moon," which features a more stripped-down sound compared to other songs on the album. The song's haunting melody and sparse instrumentation create a dreamlike atmosphere, with the lyrics referencing ancient myths and mystical landscapes. The use of phasing and backwards recording techniques add to the otherworldly feel of the song, creating a sense of timelessness and wonder.

Other notable tracks on Aoxomoxoa include "China Cat Sunflower," a catchy, upbeat song with a driving rhythm and playful lyrics, and "What's Become of the Baby," a haunting, experimental piece that features ethereal vocals and abstract lyrics.

Aoxomoxoa stands as a testament to the Grateful Dead's innovative spirit and willingness to experiment with new sounds and recording techniques. The album's use of layered instrumentation, improvisation, and unconventional song structures set it apart from the band's previous work and established the Grateful Dead as one of the pioneers of the psychedelic rock movement of the late 1960s.

While the album initially received mixed reviews from critics, it has since come to be regarded as a classic of the genre, with many fans considering it to be one of the band's best works. Its influence can be heard in the music of countless bands that followed in the Grateful Dead's footsteps, from jam bands to psychedelic rock acts.

Ultimately, Aoxomoxoa represents a pivotal moment in the Grateful Dead's career, marking a shift towards more experimental and improvisational music-making. Its use of studio techniques, layered instrumentation, and intricate arrangements set it apart from the band's previous work and established it as a classic of the psychedelic rock genre. Its enduring influence is a testament to the Grateful Dead's innovative spirit and lasting legacy as pioneers of rock music.

Grateful Dead 1970 press photo